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Specific Drugs and Their Effects Schoolds Without Drugs (Continued, Part 3)


The smoking of tobacco products is the chief avoidable cause of death in our society. Smokers are more likely than nonsmokers to contract heart disease--some 170,000 die each year from smoking-related coronary heart disease. Lung, larynx, esophageal, bladder, pancreatic, and kidney cancers also strike smokers at increased rates. Some 30 percent of cancer deaths (130,000 per year) are linked to smoking. Chronic obstructive lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis are 10 times more likely to occur among smokers than among nonsmokers.

Smoking during pregnancy also poses serious risks. Spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weights, and fetal and infant deaths are all more likely to occur when the pregnant woman/mother is a smoker.

Cigarette smoke contains some 4,000 chemicals, several of which are known carcinogens. Other toxins and irritants found in smoke can produce eye, nose, and throat irritations. Carbon monoxide, another component of cigarette smoke, combines with hemoglobin in the blood stream to form carboxyhemoglobin, a substance that interferes with the body's ability to obtain and use oxygen.

Perhaps the most dangerous substance in tobacco smoke is nicotine. Although it is implicated in the onset of heart attacks and cancer, its most dangerous role is reinforcing and strengthening the desire to smoke. Because nicotine is highly addictive, addicts find it very difficult to stop smoking. Of 1,000 typical smokers, fewer than 20 percent succeed in stopping on the first try.

Although the harmful effects of smoking cannot be questioned, people who quit can make significant strides in repairing damage done by smoking. For pack-a-day smokers, the increased risk of heart attack dissipates after 10 years. The likelihood of contracting lung cancer as a result of smoking can also be greatly reduced by quitting.



Alcohol consumption causes a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses significantly impair the judgment and coordination required to drive a car safely, increasing the likelihood that the driver will be involved in an accident. Low to moderate doses of alcohol also increase the incidence of a variety of aggressive acts, including spouse and child abuse. Moderate to high doses of alcohol cause marked impairments in higher mental functions, severely altering a person's ability to learn and remember information. Very high doses cause respiratory depression and death. If combined with other depressants of the central nervous system, much lower doses of alcohol will produce the effects just described.

Repeated use of alcohol can lead to dependence. Sudden cessation of alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms, including severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. Alcohol withdrawal can be life-threatening. Long-term consumption of large quantities of alcohol, particularly when combined with poor nutrition, can also lead to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and the liver.

Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. These infants have irreversible physical abnormalities and mental retardation. In addition, research indicates that children of alcoholic parents are at greater risk than other youngsters of becoming alcoholics.



All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental effects. Several regularly observed physical effects of cannabis are a substantial increase in the heart rate, bloodshot eyes, a dry mouth and throat, and increased appetite.

Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short-term memory and comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination, such as driving a car. Research also shows that students do not retain knowledge when they are "high." Motivation and cognition may be altered, making the acquisition of new information difficult. Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.

Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and then hold it in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke contains more cancer-causing agents than tobacco smoke.

Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological dependence and require more of the drug to get the same effect. The drug can become the center of their lives.



The immediate negative effects of inhalants include nausea, sneezing, coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of coordination, and loss of appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays also decrease the heart and respiratory rates and impair judgment. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches, and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may result in hepatitis or brain damage.

Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a short time, may result in disorientation, violent behavior, unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by depressing the central nervous system to the point that breathing stops.

Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte imbalance, and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of concentrated vapors over time can permanently damage the nervous system.



Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its immediate effects include dilated pupils and elevated blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature. Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose, while chronic use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting cocaine with contaminated equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis, and other diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the use of volatile solvents, can result in death or injury from fire or explosion. Cocaine can produce psychological and physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot function without the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its effects are felt within 10 seconds. The physical effects include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile hallucinations, paranoia, and seizures.

The use of cocaine can cause death by cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.



Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils, and decreased appetite. In addition, users may experience sweating, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness, and anxiety. Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An amphetamine injection creates a sudden increase in blood pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or heart failure.

In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling restless, anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the effects. Persons who use large amounts of amphetamines over a long period of time can develop an amphetamine psychosis that includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. These symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.



The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to convulsions and death.

Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result.



Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the neocortex, the section of the brain that controls the intellect and keeps instincts in check. Because the drug blocks pain receptors, violent PCP episodes may result in self-inflicted injuries.

The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are slowed down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.

Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and speech difficulties. Some of these effects may last 6 months to a year following prolonged daily use. Mood disorders--depression, anxiety, and violent behavior--also occur. In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit paranoid and violent behavior and experience hallucinations. Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, as well as heart and lung failure.

Lysergic acid {LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause illusions and hallucinations. The physical effects may include dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and tremors.

Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common to have a bad psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The user may experience panic, confusion, suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.



Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that often is followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possible death. Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is likely. The use of contaminated syringes may result in disease such as AIDS, endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction in pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or addicted infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.



Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical formulas. To circumvent these legal restrictions, underground chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal drugs to produce analogs known as designer drugs. These drugs can be several hundred times stronger than the drugs they are designed to imitate.

Many of the so-called designer drugs are related to amphetamines and have mild stimulant properties but are mostly euphoriants. They can produce severe neurochemical damage to the brain.

The narcotic analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen in Parkinson's disease: uncontrollable tremors, drooling, impaired speech, paralysis, and irreversible brain damage. Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines cause nausea, blurred vision, chills or sweating, and faintness. Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and paranoia. As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The analogs of phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations, and impaired perception.


Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to the male sex hormone testosterone. Developed in the 1930s, steroids are seldom prescribed by physicians today. Current legitimate medical uses are limited to certain kinds of anemia, severe burns, and some types of breast cancer.

Taken in combination with a program of muscle-building exercise and diet, steroids may contribute to increases in body weight and muscular strength. Because of these properties, athletes in a variety of sports have used steroids since the 1950s, hoping to enhance performance. Today, they are being joined by increasing numbers of young people seeking to accelerate their physical development.

Steroid users subject themselves to more than 70 side effects ranging in severity from liver cancer to acne and including psychological as well as physical reactions. The liver and the cardiovascular and reproductive systems are most seriously affected by steroid use. In males, use can cause withered testicles, sterility, and impotence. In females, irreversible masculine traits can develop along with breast reduction and sterility. Psychological effects in both sexes include very aggressive behavior known as "roid rage" and depression. While some side effects appear quickly, others, such as heart attacks and strokes, may not show up for years.

Signs of steroid use include quick weight and muscle gains (if steroids are being used in conjunction with a weight training program); behavioral changes, particularly increased aggressiveness and combativeness; jaundice; purple or red spots on the body; swelling of feet or lower legs; trembling; unexplained darkening of the skin; persistent unpleasant breath odor, and severe acne.

Steroids are produced in tablet or capsule form for oral ingestion, or as a liquid for intramuscular injection.

Sources of Information

The Department of Education does not endorse private or commercial products or services, or products or services not affiliated with the Federal Government. The sources of information listed on this and the following pages are intended only as a partial listing of the resources that are available to readers of this booklet. Readers are encouraged to research and inform themselves of the products or services, relating to drug and alcohol abuse, that are available to them. Readers are encouraged to visit their public libraries to find out more about the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse, or to call local, State, or national hotlines for further information, advice, or assistance.



A round-the-clock information and referral service. Recovering cocaine addict counselors answer the phones, offer guidance, and refer drug users and parents to local public and private treatment centers and family learning centers.


The National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., is the national nonprofit organization combating alcoholism, other drug addictions, and related problems. Provides information about NCA's State and local affiliates' activities in their areas. Also provides referral services to families and individuals seeking help with an alcohol or other drug problem.


NIDA Hotline, operated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is a confidential information and referral line that directs callers to cocaine abuse treatment centers in the local community. Free materials on drug use also are distributed in response to inquiries.


Publications listed below are free unless otherwise noted.

Adolescent Drug Abuse: Analyses of Treatment Research, by Elizabeth R. Rahdert and John Grabowski, 1988. This 139-page book assesses the adolescent drug user and offers theories, techniques, and findings about treatment and prevention. It also discusses family-based approaches. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Adolescent Peer Pressure Theory, Correlates, and Program Implications for Drug Abuse Prevention, 1988, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This 115-page book focuses on constructive ways of channeling peer pressure. This volume was developed to help parents and professionals understand the pressures associated with adolescence, the factors associated with drug use, and other forms of problem behavior. Different peer program approaches, ways in which peer programs can be implemented, and research suggestions are included. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Building Drug-Free Schools, by Richard A. Hawley, Robert C. Peterson, and Margaret C. Mason, 1986. This four-part drug prevention kit for grades K-12 provides school staff, parents, and community groups with suggestions for developing a workable school drug policy, K-12 curriculum, and community support. The kit consists of three written guides ($50) and a film ($275). American Council for Drug Education, 204 Monroe Street, Suite 110, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone (301) 294-0600.

The Challenge newsletter highlights successful school-based programs, provides suggestions on effective prevention techniques and the latest research on drugs and their effects. Published quarterly by the U.S. Department of Education and available from the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Courtwatch Manual. A 111-page manual explaining the court system, the criminal justice process, Courtwatch activities, and what can be done before and after a criminal is sentenced. Washington Legal Foundation, 1705 N Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036. Enclose $5 for postage and handling. Telephone (202) 857-0240.

Drug Prevention Curricula: A Guide to Selection and Implementation, by the U.S. Department of Education, 1988. Written with the help of a distinguished advisory panel, this 76-page handbook represents the best current thinking about drug prevention education. It shows what to look for when adopting or adapting ready-made curricula, and suggests important lessons that ought to be part of any prevention education sequence. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs, by Robert DuPont, Jr., 1985. This 330-page book describes the drug problem, the drug-dependence syndrome, the gateway drugs, and some ways that families can prevent and treat drug problems. American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1400 K Street, NW, Suite 1101, Washington, DC 20005, paperback, $9.95. Telephone 1-800-368-5777 and in the DC area (202) 682-6269.

Gone Way Down: Teenage Drug-Use Is a Disease, by Miller Newton, 1981, revised 1987. This 72-page book describes the stages of adolescent drug use. American Studies Press, paperback, $3.95. Telephone (813) 961-7200.

Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals, by Joyce Tobias, 1986, reprinted 1987. A 96-page handbook about adolescent drug and alcohol use, the effects of drugs and the drug culture, stages of chemical use, the formation of parent groups, and available resources. PANDAA Press, 4111 Watkins Trail, Annandale, VA 22003. Telephone (703) 750-9285, paperback, $4.95 (volume discounts).

National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American High School Students, 1975-1986, by Jerald G. Bachman, Lloyd D. Johnston, and Patrick M. O'Malley, 1987. This 265-page book reports on trends in drug use and attitudes of high school seniors, based on an annual survey conducted since 1975. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Parents, Peers and Pot II: Parents in Action, by Marsha Manatt, 1983, reprinted 1988. This 160-page book describes the formation of parent groups in rural, suburban, and urban communities. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

Peer Pressure Reversal, by Sharon Scott, 1985, reprinted 1988. A 183-page guidebook for parents, teachers, and concerned citizens to enable them to teach peer pressure reversal skills to children. Human Resource Development Press, 22 Amherst Road, Amherst, MA 01002. Telephone (413) 253-3488, paperback, $9.95.

Pot Safari, by Peggy Mann, 1982, reprinted 1987. A 134-page book for parents and teenagers. Distinguished research scientists are interviewed on the subject of marijuana. Woodmere Press, Cathedral Finance Station, P.O. Box 20190, New York, NY 10125. Telephone (212) 678-7839. Paperback, $6.95 plus shipping (volume discounts).

Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use, by Michael J. Polich et al., 1984. This 196-page book reviews the scientific literature on the nature of drug use and the effectiveness of drug law enforcement, treatment, and prevention programs. The Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138, R-3076-CHF. Telephone (213) 393-0411, paperback $15.00.

Team Up for Drug Prevention With America's Young Athletes. A free booklet for coaches that includes information about alcohol and other drugs, reasons why athletes use drugs, suggested activities for coaches, a prevention program, a survey for athletes and coaches, and sample letters to parents. Drug Enforcement Administration, Demand Reduction Section, 1405 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20537. Telephone (202) 786-4096.

The Fact Is...You Can Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems Among Elementary School Children, 1988. This 17-page booklet includes audiovisuals, program descriptions, and professional and organizational resources to assist educators and parents of young children. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.


The following drug prevention videos were developed by the U.S. Department of Education. They are available for loan through the Department's Regional Centers listed on pages 78 and 79 and the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852; (301) 468-2600.

Elementary School

The Drug Avengers. Ten 5-minute animated adventures that urge caution about ingesting unfamiliar substances; encourage students to trust their instincts when they think something is wrong; and show that drugs make things worse, not better.

Fast Forward Future. A magical device allows youngsters to peer into the future and see on a TV screen what will happen if they use drugs and what will happen if they remain drug free.

Straight Up. A fantasy adventure that features information on the effects of drugs, developing refusal skills, building self-esteem, and resisting peer pressure.

Junior High

Straight at Ya. Tips on peer pressure, saying no, and building self-esteem.

Lookin' Good. A two-part series based on actual incidents that convey the dangers of drug use and promote the use of peer support groups.

Straight Talk. Teens discuss why they won't use drugs and ways to avoid drugs.

High School

Hard Facts About Alcohol, Marijuana, and Crack. Offers factual information about the dangers of drug use in a series of dramatic vignettes.

Speak Up, Speak Out: Learning to Say No to Drugs. Gives students specific techniques they can use to resist peer pressure and say no to drug use.

Dare to Be Different. Uses the friendship of two athletes in their last year of high school to illustrate the importance of goals and values in resisting pressures to use drugs.

Downfall: Sports and Drugs. Shows how drugs affect athletic performance and examines the consequences of drug use, including steroid use, on every aspect of an athlete's life--career, family, friends, sense of accomplishment, and self-esteem.

Private Victories. Illustrates the effects of drug and alcohol use on students and the value of positive peer influences in resisting peer pressure to use drugs.


Hazelden Educational Materials. A source for pamphlets and books on drug use and alcoholism and curriculum materials for drug prevention. Telephone 1-800-328-9000. In Minnesota, call (612) 257-4010 or 1-800-257-0070.

National Council on Alcoholism. A source for pamphlets, booklets, and fact sheets on alcoholism and drug use. Telephone (212) 206-6770.

Johnson Institute. A source for audiocassettes, films, videocassettes, pamphlets, and books on alcoholism and drug use. Offers books and pamphlets on prevention and intervention for children, teens, parents, and teachers. Telephone toll-free 1-800-231-5165. In Minnesota, 1-800-247-0484 and in Minneapolis/St. Paul area, 944-0511.

National Association for Children of Alcoholics. A source for books, pamphlets, and handbooks for children of alcoholics. Conducts regional workshops and provides a directory of local members and meetings. Telephone (714) 499-3889.


ACTION Drug Prevention Program. ACTION, the Federal volunteer agency, works at the local, State, and national levels to encourage and help fund the growth of youth, parents, and senior citizen groups and networks committed to helping youth remain drug free. 806 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite M-606, Washington, DC 20525. Telephone (202) 634-9757.

American Council for Drug Education (ACDE). ACDE organizes conferences; develops media campaigns; reviews scientific findings; publishes books, a quarterly newsletter, and education kits for physicians, schools, and libraries; and produces films. 204 Monroe Street, Suite 110, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone (301) 294-0600.

Committees of Correspondence. This organization provides a newsletter and bulletins on issues, ideas, and contacts. Publishes a resource list and pamphlets. Membership is $15.00. 57 Conant Street, Room 113, Danvers, MA 09123. Telephone (508) 774-2641.

Drug-Free Schools and Communities--Regional Centers Program, U.S. Department of Education. This program is designed to help local school districts, State education agencies, and institutions of higher education to develop alcohol and drug education and prevention programs. Five regional centers provide training and technical assistance. For further information on center services, contact the center in your region:

Northeast Regional Center for Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Drug-Free Schools and Maryland, Massachusetts, Communities New Hampshire, New Jersey, 12 Overton Ave. New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania Sayville, NY 11782-0403 Rhode Island, Vermont (516) 589-7022

Southeast Regional Center for Alabama, Drug-Free Schools and District of Columbia, Florida, Communities Georgia, Kentucky, Spencerian Office Plaza North Carolina, Puerto Rico, University of Louisville South Carolina, Tennessee, Louisville, KY 40292 Virginia, Virgin Islands, (502) 588-0052 West Virginia FAX: (502) 588-1782

Midwest Regional Center for Indiana, Illinois, Drug-Free Schools and Iowa, Michigan, Communities Minnesota, 1900 Spring Road Missouri, Nebraska, Oak Brook, IL 60521 North Dakota, (708) 571-4710 South Dakota, FAX: (708) 571-4718 Wisconsin

Southwest Regional Center Arizona, Arkansas, for Drug-Free Schools and Colorado, Kansas, Communities Louisiana, Mississippi, 555 Constitution Ave. New Mexico, Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73037-0005 Texas, Utah (405) 325-1454 (800) 234-7972 (outside Oklahoma)

Western Regional Center Alaska, California, Hawaii, for Drug-Free Schools and Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Communities Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, 101 S.W. Main St., Suite 500 American Samoa, Guam, Portland, OR 97204 Northern Mariana Islands, (503) 275-9480 and Republic of Palau (800) 547-6339 (outside Oregon)

For general program information, contact the U.S. Department of Education, Drug-Free Schools Staff, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-6151. Telephone (202) 732-4599.

Drug-Free Schools and Communities--State and Local Programs, U.S. Department of Education. This program provides each State educational agency and Governor's office with funds for alcohol and drug education and prevention programs in local schools and communities. For information on contact persons in your State, contact the U.S. Department of Education, Drug-Free Schools Staff, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-6151. Telephone (202) 732-4599.

Families in Action. This organization maintains a drug information center with more than 200,000 documents. Publishes Drug Abuse Update, a quarterly journal containing abstracts of articles published in medical and academic journals and newspapers. $25 for four issues. 2296 Henderson Mill Road, Suite 204, Atlanta, GA 30345. Telephone (404) 934-6364.

"Just Say No" Clubs. These nationwide clubs provide support and positive peer reinforcement to youngsters through workshops, seminars, newsletters, walk-a-thons, and a variety of other activities. Clubs are organized by schools, communities, and parent groups. Just Say No Foundation, 1777 N. California Boulevard, Suite 200, Walnut Creek, CA 94596. Telephone 1-800-258-2766 or (415) 939-6666.

Narcotics Education, Inc. This organization publishes pamphlets, books, teaching aids, posters, audiovisual aids, and prevention magazines designed for classroom use: WINNER for Preteens and LISTEN for teens. 6830 Laurel Street, NW, Washington, DC 20012. Telephone 1-800-548-8700, or in the Washington, DC area, call (202) 722-6740.

Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education, Inc. (PRIDE). This national resource and information center offers consultant services to parent groups, school personnel, and youth groups, and provides a drug-use survey service. It conducts an annual conference; publishes a newsletter, a youth group handbook, and other publications; and sells and rents books, films, videos, and slide programs. Membership is $20. The Hurt Building, 50 Hurt Plaza, Suite 210, Atlanta, GA 30303. Telephone (404) 577-4500, 1-800-241-9746.

TARGET. Conducted by the National Federation of State High School Associations, an organization of interscholastic activities associations, TARGET offers workshops, training seminars, and an information bank on chemical use and prevention. It has a computerized referral service to substance abuse literature and prevention programs. National Federation of State High School Associations, 11724 Plaza Circle, P.O. Box 20626, Kansas City, MO 64195. Telephone (816) 464-5400.

Toughlove. This national self-help group for parents, children, and communities emphasizes cooperation, personal initiative, avoidance of blame, and action. It publishes a newsletter, brochures, and books and holds workshops. P.O. Box 1069, Doylestown, PA 18901. Telephone 1-800-333-1069 or (215) 348-7090.

U.S. Clearinghouse. (A publication list is available on request, along with placement on a mailing list for new publications. Single copies are free.)

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) P.O. Box 2345 Rockville, MD 20852 (301) 468-2600 1-800-SAY-NOTO

NCADI combines the clearinghouse activities previously administered by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Department of Education contributes to the support of the clearinghouse, and provides anti-drug materials for free distribution.


Alexander, Kern, American Public School Law, 3d ed. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company, 1992.

Rapp. J.A., Education Law, New York, NY: Matthew Bender and Company, Inc., 1991. A comprehensive, frequently updated, four-volume, looseleaf treatise on all issues of education law.

The Journal of Law and Education includes articles on education issues and a section on recent developments in the law. It is published quarterly by Jefferson Law Book Company, 2035 Redding Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45202-1416.

Reutter, E. Edmund, The Law of Public Education, 3d ed. Mineola, NY: Foundation Press, 1985.

School Law Bulletin is a quarterly magazine published by the Institute of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3330.

School Law News is a newsletter that describes recent developments in the field. Capitol Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 1453, Alexandria, VA 22313-2053, Telephone (800) 327-7203.

The Schools and the Courts contains briefs of selected court cases involving elementary and secondary schools. It is published quarterly by College Administration Publications, 830-D Fairview Rd., P.O. Box 15898, Asheville, NC 28813-0898.

West's Education Law Reporter reprints the full text of Federal and State education law cases. Also included are education articles and comments selected from legal periodicals. West Publishing Company, 610 Opperman Drive, P.O. Box 64526, St. Paul, MN 55164-0526.


Council of School Attorneys, National School Boards Association (NSBA), provides a national forum on the practical legal problems faced by local public school districts and the attorneys who serve them. NSBA conducts programs and seminars and publishes monographs on a wide range of legal issues affecting public school districts. 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, Telephone (703) 838-NSBA.

National Organization on Legal Problems of Education (NOLPE) is a nonprofit, nonadvocacy organization that disseminates information about current issues in school law. NOLPE publishes newsletters, serials, books, and monographs on a variety of school law topics; hosts seminars; and serves as a clearinghouse for information on education law. 3601 SW 29th Street, Suite 223, Topeka, KS 66614. Telephone (913) 273-3550.


Children and Drugs

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to Graduate from High School?" Journal of Drug Education, Vol. 15(4), 1985.

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley. Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1987 (and unpublished information).

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

Youth and Alcohol

Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems. NIAAA, Alcohol and Health Monograph 1, 1982.

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman. National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American High School Students and Young Adults. NIDA, Department of Health and Human Services, (ADM-87-1535), U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987

Alcohol Topics: Fact Sheet, Alcohol and Youth. January 1987, Rockville, MD. "Blood Alcohol Concentrations Among Young Drivers, 1983." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33:699-701, 1984. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.

Alcohol and Health VI. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Sixth Special Report to the U.S Congress on Alcohol and Health, (ADM 87-1519) Rockville, MD.

Health, United States, 1980. National Center for Health Statistics, (PHS 81-1232), December 1980.

"A Study of Children's Attitudes and Perceptions about Drugs and Alcohol." Weekly Reader Publications. Middletown, CT. April 25, 1983.

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information: "Fact Sheet: Selected Statistics on Alcohol and alcoholism," June 1987. Rockville, MD.

DuPont, R.L. "Substance Abuse." Journal of the American Medical Association, 254:16, October 25, 1985.

Kandel, D.B. "Epidemiological and Psychosocial Perspectives on Adolescent Drug Use." Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychology, 21(4):328-347, 1982.

Braucht, G.N. "Psychosocial Research on Teenage Drinking: Past and Future," in Scarpitti, F.R. & S.K. Datesman, eds. Drugs and the Youth Culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1980.

Jenson, R. "Adolescent Problem Drinking: Psychosocial Aspects & Developmental Outcomes in Proceedings." Collaborating Center Designation Meeting & Alcohol Research Seminar, L.H. Towle, ed. 1985. (ADM 85-1730), Rockville, MD.

Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley. Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1991 (and unpublished information).

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman. Drug Use Among American High School Students, College Students, and Other Young Adults: National Trends Through 1990. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1990 (and unpublished information).

Miller, Judith D., Ira H. Cisin, and Herbert I. Abelson. National Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1982. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983 (ADM 83-1263).

Delinquency in the United States, 1982. Pittsburgh, PA: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 1985.

Drug Problems in Japan. National Police Agency of Japan, 1985.

"Youth and Alcohol: A National Survey." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General, 1991.

O'Malley, Patrick M., Jerald G. Bachman, and Lloyd D. Johnston. "Student Drug Use in America: Differences Among High Schools." Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, unpublished preliminary draft.

Japan Statistics Yearbook, 1985. Tokyo: Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency, 1985.

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine Abuse: A View from the National Hotline, 800-COCAINE ;" in Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 1987.

How Drug Use Develops

Bolton, Iris M. "Educated Suicide Prevention." School Safety. Spring 1986.

DuPont, Robert L. Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1984.

Gold, Mark S., Linda Semlitz, Charles A. Dackis, and Irl Extein. "The Adolescent Cocaine Epidemic." Seminars in Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 1(4). New York, NY: Thieme, Inc., December 1985.

Holzman, David. "Crack Shatters the Cocaine Myth," and "Hot Line Taking 1,200 Calls A Day." Insight. June 23, 1986.

Jaffe, Jerome H. "Testimony before Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism," February 20, 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Mills, Carol J. and Harvey L. Noyes. "Patterns and Correlates of Initial and Subsequent Drug Use Among Adolescents." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(2), 1984.

Morganthau, Tom, Mark Miller, Janet Huck, and Jeanne DeQuinne. "Kids and Cocaine." Newsweek, March 17, 1986.

Cocaine Addiction: It Costs Too Much. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

Weekly Reader Publications. The Weekly Reader National Survey: Drugs and Drinking. Middletown, CT: Field Publications, 1987.

Effects of Drug Use

Deadwyler, Sam A. "Correlating Behavior with Neural Activity: An Approach to Study the Action of Drugs in the Behaving Animal. "Neuroscience Methods in Drug Abuse Research. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

Drug Use and Learning

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to Graduate from High School?" Journal of Drug Education, Vol. 15(4), 1985.

Johnston, Lloyd D. Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley. Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the Nation's High School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1987 (and unpublished information).

Niven, Robert G. "Marijuana in the School: Clinical Observation and Needs." Marijuana and Youth. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1982.

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine Abuse: A View from the National Hotline, '800-COCAINE'," in Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 1987.

What Parents Can Do

American Association of School Administrators and the Quest National Center. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches to Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use. Arlington VA: American Association of School Administrators, 1985.

Fraser, M. W., and J. D. Hawkins. Parent Training for Delinquency Prevention: A Review. Seattle, WA: Center for Law and Justice, University of Washington, 1982.

Manatt, Marsha. Parents, Peers, and Pot II. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drugs and the Family. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981, (ADM 83-1151).

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Parents: What You Can De About Drug Abuse--Get Involved. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983 (ADM 84-1267).

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: Panda Press, 1986.

What Schools Can Do

Adams, Tom, with Bernard R. McColgan, Steven E. Gardner, and Maureen E. Sullivan. Drug Abuse Prevention and the Schools. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, June 1984 (unpublished paper).

Assisting Athletes with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. Rockland, ME: State of Maine, March 1986.

Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc. "Evaluation of Drug Literature." Amherst, MA: Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc.

Hawley, R. A A School Answers Back: Responding to Student Drug Use. Rockville, MD: American Council for Drug Education, 1984.

Kennedy, Dorothy. "A Teacher Help Me Stop Drug Abuse." The Executive Educator. October 1980, p. 23.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Prevention Plus: Involving Schools, Parents, and the Community in Alcohol and Drug Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1983 (ADM 83-1256).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Handbook for Prevention Evaluation. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981.

National School Boards Association. Resolutions of the NSBA. Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Association, April 1986.

Pyramid Project. School Drug Policy. Berkeley, CA: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, July 1986.

The Rand Corporation. Teens in Action: Creating a Drug-Free Future for America's Youth. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985 (ADM 85-1376).

Rubel, Robert J. A Comprehensive Approach to Drug Prevention. Austin, TX: National Alliance for Safe Schools, 1984.

South Dakota High School Activities Association. Chemical Health-School Athletics and Fine Arts Activities. Pierre, SD: South Dakota High School Athletics Association, 1968.

Strong, Gerald. "It's Time to Get Tough on Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Schools," The American School Board Journal. February 1983.

U.S. Department of Justice. For Coaches Only: How to Start a Drug Prevention Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 1984.

U.S. Department of Justice. Team Up for Prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 1984.

What Communities Can Do

Blizard, R.A. and R.W. Teague. "Alternatives to Drug Use: An Alternative Approach to Drug Education." The International Journal of the Addictions, 1981, pp. 371-375.

Final Evaluation Report, 1984-85 Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Educational). Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation and Training Institute, August 1985.

Manatt, Marsha. Parents, Peers, and Pot II. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse: Intervention Strategies. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

Teaching About Drug Prevention

Bausen, William B. and C. Kevin Molotte. Well and Good. Hollywood, CA: Health Promotion Associates, 1984.

Ellickson, Phyllis L. and Gall Zellman. Adapting the Social Influence Model to Drug Prevention: The Project Alert Curriculum. Paper presented at annual meeting of the American Public Health Association, Washington, DC: November 1985.

Project SMART. Los Angeles, CA: Health Behavior Research Institute. University of Southern California, 1982.

Adolescent Peer Pressure. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981 (ADM 84-1152).

Teaching Tools for Primary Prevention. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, December 1982 (unpublished paper).

New Hampshire State Department of Education. K-12 Guidelines for School Preventive Drug Education. Concord, NH: State of New Hampshire, 1979.

How the Law Can Help

1 Bethel School District v. Fraser, 418 U.S. 615,682 (1986). 2 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325, 339 (1985). 3 2 J. Rapp, Education Law, 5 9.06[2] at 9-132 (1991). 4 See 21 U.S.C. 5 860. 5 See 21 U.S.C. 5 859. 6 See e.g., Zamora v. Pomeroy, 639 F.2d 662 (10th Cir. 1981) (locker search conducted after trained police dog indicated presence of marijuana inside). 7 See e.g., Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690 F.2d 470, 476-77 (5th Cir. 1982) (en banc) (citing cases and so holding), cert. denied, 463 U.S. 1207 (1983). 8 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. at 343. 9 Id. at 340. 10 Id. at 345-48. 11 Bahr v. Jenkins, 539 F. Supp. 483,488 (E.D. Ky. 1982). 12 Martens v. District No. 220, 620 F. Supp. 29 (N.D. Ill. 1985). 13 See Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690 F.2d at 477 (1982); Jones v. Latexo Independent School, 499 F. Supp. 223 (E.D. Tex. 1980). 14 See Doe v. Renfrow, 475 F. Supp. 1012 (N.D. Ind. 1979), aff'd in relevant part, 631 F.2d 91 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 451 U.S. 1022 (1981). 15 Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690 F.2d at 477. 16 Compare Odenheim v. Carlstadt-East Rutherford Regional School District, 211 N.J. Super. 54, 10 A.2d 709 (1985) and Anable v. Ford, 653 F. Supp. 22 (W.D. Ark.), modified, 663 F. Supp. 149 (W.D. Ark. 1985) (urinalysis not permitted to screen public school students for drugs) with Schaill v. Tijpecanoe, 679 F. Supp. 833 (N.D. Ind. 1988) (upheld drug testing of interscholastic athletes in the public school system), aft'd, 864 F.2d 1309 (7th Cir. 1988). 17 Bethel School District v. Fraser, 478 U.S. at 686. 18 Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565 (1975). 19 One of the leading cases is Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education, 294 F.2d 150 (5th Cir.), cert. denied. 368 U.S. 930 (1961). 20 See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 55 1400-20, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 5 794. 21 See generally 20 U.S.C. 5 1232g and 34 C.F.R. Part 99. 22 The term education records is defined as records that are directly related to a student and maintained by or for the education agency or institution. The term does not include certain records maintained by a separate law enforcement unit of an education agency. 23 FERPA permits a school to disclose information from education records to its own officials (including teachers) who have a legitimate educational interest in the information. A school may determine in its FERPA policy that one such interest is the need to decide on the appropriateness of discipline. 24 An eligible student is a student who is 18 or older or attending an institution of postsecondary education. 25 See Board of Education v. McCluskey, 458 U.S. 966, 970-71 (1982) (per curiam); see also Tarter v. Raybuck, 742 F.2d 977, 983 (6th Cir. 1984), cert. denied, 470 U.S. 1051 (1985). 26 See Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982); Wood v. Strickland, 420 U.S. 308 (1975). Under these cases, officials will be immune from personal liability so long as their conduct does not violate clearly established constitutional or Federal statutory rights of which a reasonable person should have known. 27 Memphis Community School District v. Stachura, 477 U.S. 299 (1986). 28 Carey v. Piphus, 435 U.S. 247 (1978).

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

Drug Enforcement Administration. Drugs of Abuse. Washington, DC, 1985.

Mann, Peggy. Pot Safari: A Visit to the Top Marijuana Research in the U.S. New York, NY: Woodmere Press, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Cocaine Use in America: Epidemiologic and Clinical Perspectives. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985, (ADM 85-1414).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug Abuse and Drug Abuse Research. 1984, (ADM 85-1372).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hallucinogens and PCP. 1983, (ADM 83-1306).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Inhalants. 1983 (ADM 83-1307).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana. 1983 (ADM 83-1307).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Capsules, various issues.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opiates. 1984 (ADM 84-1308).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Phencyclidine: An Update. (ADM 86-1443).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Sedative-Hynotics. 1984 (ADM 84-1309).

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Stimulants and Cocaine. 1984 (ADM 84-1304).

Newsweek. March 17, 1986, page 58.

Tobias, Joyce. Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, May 1986.


The following employees of the U.S. Department of Education assisted in the preparation of this volume and previous editions:

Beverley Blondell Adriana de Kanter Henry Bretzfield Amy Katz Ron Bucknam Kim Light Judith Cherrington John Mason Mari Colvin Ross McNutt Maura Daly Val Plisko Elizabeth Farquhar Sandra Richardson Jaime Fernandez Loretta Riggans Margaret Guenther Deborah Rudy Charlotte Gillespie Daniel Schecter Alan Ginsburg Amy L. Schwartz Wilma Green Barbara Vespucci Dick Hays John Walters Gregory Henschel Sherry Weissman Daphne Kaplan Valerie Wood

Assistance was also provided by staff from the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and by consultants Elizabeth S. McConnell and Joel M. Moskowitz.

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